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CDC recommendations for the prevention and control of STDs are based on each of the following major strategies EXCEPT:
The “Five P’s” approach to obtaining a sexual history is one strategy for eliciting information concerning five key areas of interest, including partners, practices, prevention of pregnancy, prevention of STD’s, and:
Prevention counseling for STD/HIV should be offered to all sexually active adolescents and to all adults who have received an STD diagnosis, have had an STD in the past year, or have multiple sexual partners, and it should be provided in an empathetic manner appropriate to the patient’s…
In observational studies, diaphragm use has been demonstrated to protect against cervical gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis, although experts do not recommend diaphragms as a sole source of protection against…
Definitive data has clearly demonstrated that male circumcision reduces HIV acquisition in men.
Syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, HIV infection, and AIDS are reportable diseases…
Recommendations to screen pregnant women for STD’s are based on several factors, including disease severity and sequelae, costs, medico-legal considerations, and:
All pregnant women in the United States should be screened for HIV infection at the first prenatal visit, as treating those who are infected is vital to the woman, and perinatal transmission of HIV may be reduced through available…
Factors contributing to increased STD risk during adolescence include…
Comprehensive national guidelines regarding STD care and management have been developed for _________ populations, as growing evidence has demonstrated the utility of expanded STD screening and treatment services in these settings.
Although the frequency of unsafe sexual practices and the reported rates of bacterial STD’s and incident HIV infection declined substantially in MSM from the 1980’s through the mid-1990’s, since that time, higher rates of sexual risk behaviors have been documented among MSM in the U.S. as well as increased rates of:
Routine cervical cancer screening should be offered to all women, including WSW who are at risk for acquiring HPV from both their female partners and from current or prior male partners, and thus are at risk for cervical cancer.
HCV can be transmitted through sex, and likely because of high-risk and traumatic sexual practices, new cases of HCV are emerging among MSM, as well as among:
Since HCV has been shown to be transmitted through breast milk, mothers with HCV infection should abstain from breastfeeding.
Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, many cases of HIV infection continue to be diagnosed at advanced stages, and although HIV testing facilitates early diagnosis, rates of testing remain ___________.
Acute retroviral syndrome, which develops in 50%-90% of persons within the first few weeks after they become infected with HIV, is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, including…
Providers should expect persons with HIV infection to be distressed when first informed of a positive test result, as they have to face coping with the reactions of others to a stigmatizing illness as well as:
At the initial HIV care visit, providers should test all sexually active persons with HIV infection for curable STD’s (e.g., syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) and perform testing at least _______ during the course of HIV care.
In the United States, most young, sexually active patients who have genital, anal, or perianal ulcers have either genital herpes or syphilis, with the frequency of each condition differing by….
Each of the following is an accurate statement about genital HSV infections EXCEPT:
In order to significantly reduce the frequency of genital herpes recurrences, by as much as 70%-80% in patients who have frequent recurrences, some patients choose to take daily antiviral therapy, which is known as:
Immunocompromised patients can have prolonged or severe episodes of genital, perianal, or oral herpes, and lesions caused by HSV that may be severe, painful, and atypical are common among persons with…
Women with recurrent genital herpetic lesions at the onset of labor should deliver by cesarean delivery, as cesarean delivery completely eliminates the risk for HSV transmission to the neonate.
Syphilis has been divided into stages based on clinical findings, helping to guide treatment and follow-up, and manifestations of primary infection include…
False-positive nontreponemal test results can be associated with various medical conditions and factors unrelated to syphilis, including other infections such as HIV, autoimmune conditions, immunizations, pregnancy, injection drug-use, and:
____________, administered parenterally, is the preferred drug for treating persons in all stages of syphilis.
Sex partners of persons with syphilis are considered at risk for infection and should be confidentially notified of the exposure and need for evaluation if they are partners who have had sexual contact within:
All women should be screened serologically for syphilis…
Which of the following is a correct statement about syphilis treatment and management in pregnancy?
Urethritis, as characterized by urethral inflammation…
NGU is a nonspecific diagnosis that can have many infectious etiologies, and all men who have confirmed NGU should be tested for chlamydia and:
Because cervicitis might be a sign of upper-genital-tract infection, women with a new episode of cervicitis should be assessed for signs of…
Chlamydial infection is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States, and prevalence is highest in persons…
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the primary focus of screening men for chlamydia?
Sexual abuse must be considered a cause of chlamydial infection in infants and children, although perinatally transmitted C. trachomatis infection of the nasopharynx, urogenital tract and rectum might persist for 2-3 years.
Women are at increased risk for N. gonorrhea infection include those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI, and additional risk factors include:
To maximize adherence with recommended therapies and to reduce complications and transmission, medication for gonococcal infection should be provided on site and directly observed.
A high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae infection has been observed among men and women previously treated for gonorrhea, which generally indicates treatment failure.
Recent sex partners who have had sexual contact with the infected patient within the ________ preceding onset of symptoms or gonorrhea diagnosis should be referred for evaluation, testing, and presumptive dual treatment.
________ can be associated with vaginal discharge:
Data suggest that douching may help relieve symptoms and enhance treatment for diseases characterized by vaginal discharge.
___________ is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the United States.
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about management considerations for individuals with T. vaginalis?
Up to 53% of women with HIV infection are also infected with T. vaginalis, and treatment of trichomoniasis is associated with significant decreases in…
Presumptive treatment for PID should be initiated in sexually active young women and other women at risk for STD’s in each the following cases EXCEPT:
Which of the following is an accurate statement about epididymitis?
Signs and symptoms of epididymitis that do not subside within ______ of treatment require re-evaluation of the diagnosis and therapy